How does it affect sufferers ?
In addition to proteinuria there are three main symptoms of nephrotic syndrome associated with protein leaking into the urine:
Edema - Swelling
Nephrotic-related swelling makes tissue puffy, soft, and impressionable to the touch. Edema is most common in the legs and feet, especially after standing all day. It can cause feelings of tightness in the extremities and may affect mobility. In later stages, swelling may occur in the abdomen, hands, and around the eyes in the morning. In later stages, the whole body may swell. Some people gain weight after fluid builds up in their bodies for a long time.
This is a low level of albumin (a protein) in the blood due to proteinuria. Low albumin in the blood causes fluid to move from the blood into the tissue, causing swelling. The kidney perceives the decrease of fluid in the blood and aggressively retains as much fluid and salt as it can. This contributes to the body's fluid-overload state.
Hypercholestrolemia - High blood cholesterol
This is common in nephrotic syndrome. In addition to albumin, other important enzymes involved in cholesterol metabolism slip through the glomeruli, which contribute to high blood cholesterol.