Nephrotic syndrome (NS) is a potentially devastating condition, in which the natural filtering ability of the kidney breaks down, with a consequent massive leak of essential proteins from the bloodstream into the urine. This results in the typical body swelling due to leakage of fluid from the bloodstream into the tissue spaces, and complications such as infections and thrombosis because of loss of circulating antibodies and clotting factors.
NS is one of the commonest kidney diseases in childhood, and the current treatment is non-specific and highly toxic, with many potentially life-threatening complications.
A proportion of children progress to kidney failure, despite years of frustrating treatment regimes, and one of the most devastating aspects of the disease at this stage is that even after transplantation the original disease can rapidly recur in the new kidney.
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